The general formula is as follows:
CAR = (Tier 1 Capital + Tier 2 Capital)/Risk Weighted Assets
Tier 1 Capital
Tier 1 CAR is the ratio of a bank's core or equity capital to its total risk-weighted assets. It measures financial strength from a regulator's point of view. Tier 1 Capital measures the bank's ability to absorb losses without a bank being required to cease trading.
The formula for Tier 1 Capital is as follows:
Tier 1 Capital = (Paid-up Capital + Statutory Reserves + Disclosed Free Reserves) - (Equity Investments in Subsidiary + Intangible Assets + Current & B/F losses)
Tier 1 CAR = Tier 1 Capital/Risk Weighted Assets
Tier 2 Capital
Tier 2 Capital is supplementary capital. It measures the ability of a bank to absorb losses in the event of a winding up and so it provides a lesser degree of protection to depositors.
The formula for Tier 2 Capital is as follows:
Tier 2 Capital = Undisclosed Reserves + General Loss Reserves + Hybrid Debt Capital Instruments and Subordinated Debts.
Risk Weighted Assets
Risk Weighted Assets are a bank's on balance sheet assets and off-balance sheet exposures, weighted according to risk. Different classes of assets have different risk weightings. For instance, cash on hand or a government bond has zero risk weighting and are subtracted from the total risk assets. A loan would have a 100% risk weighthing - it would be counted towards the total risk assets of the bank.
More information about this can be found here.
Minimum Capital Requirements
Basel III is the global requlatory standard on bank capital adequacy, stress testing, and market liquidity risk agreed upon by the members of the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision.
Under Basel III, the minimum Common Equity Tier 1 Capital Ratio is 4.5%, Tier 1 Capital Ratio is 6.0%, conservation buffer is 2.5%, and the minimum Total CAR is 8.0%.
For more information on Basel III, read this.
The BSP issued new BASEL III Implementing Guidelines that will take effect on January 1, 2014. Under the new guidelines:
"Banks must now meet specific minimum thresholds for so-called Common Equity Tier 1 (CET1) capital and Tier 1 (T1) capital in addition to the Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR). These regulatory thresholds effectively move banks worldwide to rely more on core capital instruments like CET1 and T1 issues. This is in lieu of hybrid instruments which did not fare well in the latest global crisis as far as absorbing losses. The ability to absorb losses is central to Basel III.
The BSP maintained the minimum Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR) at 10.0 percent. In addition to CAR, the new framework sets a CET1 ratio of at least 6.0 percent and the Tier I capital ratio is at a minimum of 7.5 percent.
The new guidelines also introduce a capital conservation buffer of 2.5 percent which shall be made up of CET1 capital. In addition, banks which issued capital instruments from 2011 will be allowed to count these instruments as Basel III-eligible until end-2015Under these guidelines, several Philippine Thrift Banks currently do not meet these guidelines as of September 30, 2012. Distressed Banks are highlighted in yellow. For more information on distressed thrift banks, please check out a previous blog post: ""Philippine Thrift Banks Deteriorate in the 3rd Quarter of 2012". The banks that fail to meet BSP's minimum capital requirements are as follows:
- Bataan SLA (Total CAR of 0.0)
- Metro Cebu Public Savings Bank (Total CAR of 0.0)
- Sterling Bank of Asia Inc. (Total CAR of 0.0)
- The Real Bank Inc. (Total CAR of 3.28)
- Legazpi Savings Bank, Inc. (Total CAR of 8.48)
- Bataan SLA (Tier One CAR of 0.0)
- Business & Consumers Bank (Tier One CAR of 0.0)
- Maritime SLA (Tier One CAR of 0.0)
- Optimum Development Bank (Tier One CAR of 0.0)
- The Real Bank Inc. (Tier One CAR of 1.64)
- Legazpi Savings Bank, Inc. (Tier One CAR of 6.58)
- Planters Development Bank (Tier One CAR of 7.40)